스위스의 역사

시초부터 현재까지

현재 스위스 영토의 대부분은 산악 지형으로 되어 있다. 이러한 이유로 알파인 패스는 중요한 통신 및 무역 경로를 제어하는 힘을 갖는 등 국가 발전에 중요한 역할을 해오고 있다.

접근하기 어려운 산악 지형으로 이루어진 독특한 주거 환경으로 인해 오랜 세월 동안 외세가 영향을 끼치기 힘든 환경이 조성되어 지역 보호 및 자유를 누리는데 이상적이었다. 이것은 그들 고유의 전통과 정부 수립을 발전시키기 위한 인구를 가능하게 했다. 또한 1515년부터 시행하고 있는 중립 국가 형태를 가능하게 했으며, 유럽 열강들 사이에서 안전 지대를 형성하여 호의적인 국가로 자리매김할 수 있었다. 오늘날 우리가 알고 있는 스위스는 1848년에 세워졌다. 이전에는 이러다 할 스위스의 역사가 없었는데, 1848년까지 현재의 스위스 모습을 갖추기 위해 다양한 지역이 점진적으로 합쳐지는 과정이라고 할 수 있다.

시초부터 로마시대까지

스위스에서 가장 오래된 인간의 자취는 약 150,000년 정도 전이고 부싯돌 도구는 약 100,000년 전에 발견됐다.

The territory of the present-day Switzerland developed in a similar way to that of the rest of Europe. The first centuries were marked by migration, resulting in the area being inhabited by different peoples. With the rule of the Romans, Christianity spread, and the Church with its bishoprics and monasteries became an important landowner. At the same time, aristocratic families increased their power by conquest, inheritance and marriage policy. For a short time, the Frankish king Charlemagne controlled a significant part of Western Europe. In 962 another sphere of power came into being when the German king Otto I persuaded the Pope to appoint him Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

스위스의 첫 정착민

The discovery of the pile dwellings was regarded as a sensation – because until then very little was known about the history of Switzerland before the time of the Helvetians and Romans.

read on

로마 영향 하의 스위스

Source: http://de.academic.ru/dic.nsf/dewiki/456580'

In 58 BC, the Mittelland-based Helvetians tried to avoid the Germanic incursion from the west and migrate to the south of France. But Caesar sent them back and settled them as a "buffer people".

read on

로마제국 이후의 스위스

Source: http://www.steppenreiter.de/hunnen.htm

After the departure of the Romans, the Alemanni gradually colonised Switzerland from the north. Western Switzerland was ruled by the Burgundians, while the Alpine regions were dominated by local Gallo-Roman rulers.

read on

기독교의 진출

Initially brought to Switzerland by the Romans, Christianity only really started to spread in the 6th century when the wandering monks from Ireland began establishing monasteries.

read on

게르만 통치

Source: http://www.welterbe-speyer.de/index.php?id=194&L=

Supported by noble families, non-aristocratic landowners, abbots and bishops, the German Emperor Conrad II ruled over large parts of western and central Europe – and united the Swiss territories in 1032.

read on
맨위로 가기

중세 후기의 스위스

1291년에 3개의 지방 산악지역이 외부의 침입에 대비하기 위해 연합하게 되고 이때가 전통적으로 연방 건국의 해로 간주된다.

In the 14th and 15 centuries there developed a loose federation with rural and urban members. By the end of the 15th century it was strong enough to affect the balance of power in Europe. Various wars were fought in which the Confederates displayed courage and ingenuity, and they gained a reputation as a formidable opponent in combat. The Confederation was enlarged in various ways with some areas joining voluntarily and as equal members while others were more or less forced. The members of the Confederation mainly administered the affairs of their own regions but representatives of each area also met regularly to discuss issues of common interest.

스위스 연맹의 상승

Source: http://de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Picswiss_UR-25-09.jpg

The desire for freedom on the part of rebellious miners in their ancestral country prompted the Habsburgs to enforce their claims to power by the force of arms. In the process they suffered heavy losses - while the Confederates grew increasingly confident.

read on

이견과 부르군트(Burgund) 전쟁

The relationships between the Confederates and other parts of what is now Switzerland were very diverse. At the instigation of Bern and of the French king, the Confederates went to war against the Burgundian duke, Charles the Bold, who suffered a crushing defeat in three battles.

read on

독립과 확장의 종식

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_at_Schwaderloh.jpg

Following the success of the Swabian wars the interest of those in central Switzerland now turned towards the south. The Confederates’ dreams of having great power finally came to an end with their crushing defeat at Marignano.

read on
맨위로 가기

종교개혁과 17세기

16세기 서유럽은 종교개혁에 휩쓸렸고 이 움직임은 서양의 기독교를 두 진영으로 분할하였다.

Although the riots and destruction were fought on a religious level, this reflected, above all, the desire for social change and the social tensions that existed primarily between town and country. The 17th century saw three further landmarks in the development of modern-day Switzerland. All came as a result of the 30 Years' War (1618-48). While large parts of Europe were involved in this war, the Confederation remained neutral. An important consequence of the Thirty Years' War was Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire, which was formally recognised by the Treaty of Westphalia.

두 종교 개혁자 : 츠빙글리(Zwingli)와 칼뱅(Calvin)

The 16th century was marked by reformations, counter-reformations and religious wars - and also by renewal within the Catholic Church.

read on

갈등과 종교전쟁

The 16th century was marked by reformations, counter-reformations and religious wars - and also by renewal within the Catholic Church.

read on

17세기 정치 구조

The rights and freedoms within the Confederation varied greatly depending on the location. There were rural cantons, city cantons, cities dominated by aristocrats, common lordships ruled by bailiffs as well as subject territories.

read on

30년 전쟁과 독립

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Hanging_by_Jacques_Callot.jpg

The Confederation was able to keep out of the Thirty Years’ War – had it been involved, it would have led to the collapse of the Confederation due to confessional differences.

read on

농민반란과 종교적 평화

Source: http://www.villmergerkriege.ch/Historische%20Gem%C3%A4lde/

Whereas a currency devaluation led to a peasant uprising, it was the confessional divide that sparked the Villmergen Wars that led to the restoration of a balanced religious peace and an end to Catholic hegemony.

read on
맨위로 가기

18세기와 19세기

1798년 프랑스 군대가 스위스를 침략하고 중앙집권 국가임을 선포했다. 이후 스위스의 본래 주(州) 제도는 복원되었다. 비록 더욱 중앙집권적인 형태이지만 말이다.

In 1798, French troops invaded Switzerland and created the centralised Helvetic Republic. For the first time in its history, Switzerland was forced to abandon its neutrality and to provide troops for France. After the Sonderbund War, the foundations for the modern Switzerland were finally laid down with the adoption of the Constitution of 1848. It brought about a more centralised form of government and a single economic area, which put an end to the cantonal rivalries and enabled economic development. Despite this progress, the 19th century was a difficult time for many people in Switzerland. Poverty, hunger and poor job prospects led to a wave of emigration, including to North and South America.

권력구조, 경제, 사회

As in the 16th and 17th centuries, the 18th century also saw sporadic uprisings of the peasantry against the ruling "Excellencies" (Gnädige Herren). In Switzerland also, the people were dissatisfied with the old rulership.

read on

프랑스 혁명과 헬베티아(Helvetic) 공화국

After the French occupation, the Helvetic Republic experienced at least four coups between 1800 and1802 and ultimately succumbed to the internal chaos.

read on

나폴레옹(Napoleon)과 스위스

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Napoleon_Wagram.jpg

Napoleon came to the conclusion that the centralised government in Switzerland was doomed to failure and prescribed a constitution for Switzerland which was based on the autonomy of the cantons.

read on

복원 및 준더분트(Sonderbund) 전쟁

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eidg_Generalstab_Sonderbundskrieg.jpg

The way from Confederation to federal state is a history of provocations and power struggles between progressives/liberals and conservatives – often played at a religious level.

read on

연방 헌법과 19세기

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bundesverfassung_1848_Schweiz.jpg

After the defeat of the Sonderbund War, liberal and radical proponents of a stronger central government saw that the time had come to put their case. Nevertheless, they granted substantial autonomy to the cantons.

read on
맨위로 가기

20세기의 스위스

20세기에는 정치, 경제 그리고 사회분야에서 눈에 띄는 발전이 있었다.

Domestically there was a shift towards a multi-party system. While at the beginning of the century one party occupied all the positions in the government (Federal Council), there were four parties represented there at the end of the century. Agrarian Switzerland developed into an industrial state with the result that there were more immigrants than emigrants and the standard of living rose significantly. Working conditions and social security steadily improved and there was greater access to a more extensive range of consumer goods. The development of the export sector changed the country’s relationship with Europe and the rest of the world. Although Switzerland remained politically neutral – it did not actively participate in either of the two World Wars – neutrality remained the subject of intense debate.

1차 세계대전

Switzerland was resource-poor but highly industrialised and dependent on tourism. It had to negotiate with the warring parties in order to obtain a minimum supply of raw materials.

read on

1, 2차 세계대전 사이의 스위스

<a href='http://www.alt-zueri.ch/feldpost/geschichte/5_feldpostdienst_zwischenkriegszeit.htm'>Source</a>

In 1918, one sixth of the population lived below the poverty line. The bitterness and estrangement between the workers and the middle class solidified even further in the following years.

read on

풍요로운 사회로

Source: http://de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:R%C3%BCtlirapport.jpg

As a small but early industrialised country, Switzerland established itself on the world markets in the areas of mechanical engineering, the chemical and pharmaceutical industries as well as financial services.

read on
맨위로 가기

다른 시야로 결과 보기: